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高中英语语法超级归纳,不看后悔三年!

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本帖最后由 李倩家长 于 2018-9-2 23:24 编辑

一、冠词
冠词分为不定冠词(a, an),定冠词(the),和零冠词。
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I. 不定冠词的用法

1

指一类人或事,相当于a kind of

A plane is a machine that can fly.

2

第一次提及某人某物,非特指

A boy is waiting for you.有个男孩在等你。

3

表示“每一”相当于every,one

We study eight hours a day.

4

表示“相同”相当于the same

We are nearly of an age.

5

用于人名前,表示不认识此人或与某名人有类似性质的人或事

— Hello, could I speak to Mr. Smith?

—Sorry, wrong number. There isn't______ Mr. Smith here.

A. 不填 B. a  C.  theD. one

That boy is rather a Lei Feng.(活雷锋)

6

用于固定词组中

a couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk,  many a time

7

用于quite,  rather, many, half, what, such之后

This room is rather a big one.

8

用于so(as,  too, how)+形容词之后

She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet.

9

用于抽象名词具体化的名词前

success(抽象名词)→a success(具体化)  成功的人或事

a failure 失败的人或事 a shame带来耻辱的人或事

a pity可惜或遗憾的事 a must 必需必备的事

a good knowledge of 精通掌握某一方面的知识


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II. 定冠词的用法

1

表示某一类人或物

In many places in China, ___ bicycle is still ___ popular  means of transportation.

A. a; theB.  /; aC.  the; aD.  the; the

2

用于世上独一无二的事物名词前

the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean

3

表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的人或事

Would you mind opening the door?

4

用于演奏乐器

play the violin, play the guitar

5

用于形容词和分词前表示一类人

the reach, the living, the wounded

6

表示“一家人”或“夫妇”(对比上文的不定冠词用法5)

—Could you tell me the way to ____ Johnsons, please?
—Sorry, we don’t have ____ Johnson here in the village.
A. the; theB. the; aC.  /; theD.  the; /

7

用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前

He is the taller of the two children.

8

用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川群岛的名词前

the United States, the Communist Party of China, the French

9

用于表示发明物的单数名词前

The compass was invented in China.

10

在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个年代

in the 1990’s(二十世纪九十年代)

11

用于表示度量单位的名词前

I hired the car by the hour.

12

用于方位名词,身体部位名词

He patted me on the shoulder.


III. 不用冠词(又名零冠词)的用法

1

专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名地名等名词前

Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air

2

名词前有this,  my, whose, some, no, each, every等限制

I want this book, not that one. /Whose purse is this?

3

季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐前

March, Sunday, National Day, spring

4

表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前

Lincoln was made President of America.

5

表示球类,棋类等运动的名词前

He likes playing football/chess.

6

与by连用表示交通方式的名词前

We went right round to the west coast by ______ sea instead of  driving across ______ continent.

A. the; theB.不填;the C. the; 不填 D. 不填;不填

7

以and连接的两个相对的名词并用时

husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night

8

表示泛指的复数名词前

Horses are useful animals.

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二、名词和主谓一致
I. 名词的种类

专有名词

普通名词

国名地名人名,团体机构名称

可数名词

不可数名词

个体名词

集体名词

抽象名词

物质名词


特别注意名词类别的相互转换
个体名词与抽象名词的相互转换

例 句

意 义

名词性质

①She held some flowers in her hand.

②The trees are now in flower

花儿

个体名词

开花

抽象名词

①Youth is beautiful.

②He is a youth of twenty

青春

抽象名词

年轻人

个体名词

①They have achieved remarkable success in their work.

②—How about the Christmas evening party?

—I should say it was a success.

成功

抽象名词

成功的事

个体名词

物质名词与个体名词的相互转换

例 句

意 义

名词性质

①Iron is a kind of metal.

②Please lend me your iron.

物质名词

熨斗

个体名词

①He broke a piece of glass.

②He broke a glass.

玻璃

物质名词

玻璃杯

个体名词

①I bought a chicken this morning

②Please help yourself to some chicken

小鸡

个体名词

鸡肉

物质名词

抽象名词与个体名词的转换

具有动作意义的抽象名词加用与某些动词(如:have等)连

用,表示某一次短暂的动作

①—I’d like______information about the management of  your hotel,please.

—Well, you could have____word with the manager. He might be  helpful

A.some,a  B.an,someC.some,someD.an,a

②They sent us  word of the latest  happenings. 消息 (抽象名词)

A.aB.anC./  D.the

③Could we have  word before  you go to the meeting? 话(个体名词)

A.a B.anC./D.the

类例:have  a dream/a rest/a smoke/a swim/a trip/a wash/a discussion/a look

take a walk/a bathmake an advance(进步)/make an early start(早点出发)

/make a decision/make a change/give a cry of pain(发出痛苦的叫声) /give a try

表示知识和时间的抽象名词转换为普通名词时可以用来表示

其中的一部分

①Many people agree that___knowledge of English is a  must in____international trade today.

A.a,/ B.the,  anC.the,  theD.  /, the

a knowledge of truth(知道实际情况)

give a fuller knowledge of China(提供关于中国更为翔实的知识)

have a knowledge of shorthand(有速记的知识)

②If there were no examination, we should have______at  school.

A.the happiest timeB.a more  happier time

C.much happiest timeD.a  much happier time

③ is money.

A.The  timeB.A timeC.TimeD.Times

抽象名词转换为普通名词可用来表示“一次、一阵、一种”具体的行为、事件、现象或结

果。这时名词前往往有形容词修饰

①Oh, John. _____you gave me!

A.How a pleasant surpriseB.How  pleasant surprise

C.What a pleasant surprise  D.  What pleasant surprise

②She looked up  when I shouted.

A.in a surpriseB.in the surpriseC.in  surpriseD.in some surprise

其它例子:The  gift came as a complete surprise to me. We have had some unpleasant surprise

③It is_____work of art that everyone wants to have a  look at it.

A.so unusualB.  such unusualC.such  an unusualD.so  an unusual

II. 名词的数
规则名词的复数形式:名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s或-es(参看有关语法书)。英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,请看下表

规 则

例 词

1

改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式

man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice

2

单复数相同

sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species

3

只有复数形式

ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, compasses,  contents

4

一些集体名词总是用作复数

people, police, cattle, staff

5

部分集体名词既可以作单数(整体)也可以作复数(成员)

audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group, committee,  government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, party

6

复数形式表示特别含义

customs(海关), forces(军队), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), manners(礼貌), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜), ruins(废墟)

7

表示“某国人”

加-s

Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans

单复数同形

Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese

以-man或-woman结尾的改为-men,-women

Englishmen, Frenchwomen

8

合成名词

将主体名词变为复数

sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy  friends

无主体名词时将最后一部分变为复数

grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches

将两部分变为复数

women singers, men servants

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III. 主谓一致

规则

情 况

举 例

















以单数名词或代词动词不定式短语,动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词

用复数形式。

His father is working on the farm.

To study English well is not easy.

Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.

What he said is very important for us all.

由what引导的主语从句,后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式,但若表语是复数或what从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式。

what I bought were three English books.

What I say and do is (are) helpful for you.

由连接词and或both…and连接起来的主语后面,要用复数形式的谓语动词。但若所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物

时,它后面的谓语就用单数形式。由and 连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有no, each, every 或more than a (an)/one,many a (an) 修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。either, neither, each, every 或no+单数名词和由some, any no, every构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。.

Lucy and Lily are twins

The writer and artist has come.

Every student and every teach is in the classroom.

Many a boy and many a girl likes it.

No boy and no girl likes it.

Each of us has a new book.Is everyone here today?

Somebody is speaking in class.Everything around us is  matter

若none  of 后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单数。若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可以。

None of the sugar was left.

None of us has (have) been to America.

在定语从句里,关系代词that, who, which 等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。

Those who want to go please write their names on the  blackboard.

He is one of my friends who are working hard.

He is the (only) one of my friends who is working hard.

在强调句型中应与被强调部分一致

It is I who am going to the cinema tonight.

It is we who are going to the cinema tonight.

如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数形式;如果它指的集体的成员,其谓语动词用复数形式

The police are looking for the lost child.

The cattle are eating grass in the field.

His family has moved to the south .(他的一家)

His family are watching TV.(他的家人)

Class four is on the third floor.(四班)

Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.(四班的学生)

由a  lot of /lots of/ plenty of/ a heap of/ heaps of/ the rest of/the majority of+名词构成的短语以及由分数或百分数+名词构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。

There are a lot of people in the classroom.

Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is sea.

50 percent of the students in our class are girls.

此外,还有a  number of +复数名词有类似的用法(用复数),但the number of +复数名词的数就得依number 而定(用单数)。

A number of students have gone to the farm to help the farmer  pick apples.

The number of pages in this book is three hundred.

在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致

There comes the bus.On the wall are many  pictures.

Such is the result.Such are the facts.

Between the two hills stands a monument.








What, who, which, any, more, all 等代词可以是单数,也可是复数,主要靠意思来决定。

Which is your bag?Which are your bags?

Are any of you good at English?Has any of you got a pen?

All can be done has been done.All is going well.

All have been taken out.All have gone to Beijing.

表示时间重量长度价值等的名词的复数作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式,这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整体。

Thirty minutes is enough for the work..

Twenty pounds is too dear.

如强调这类词的复数意义,则谓语动词要用复数形式

Forty kilos of water are used every day.

若英语是书名名格言剧名报名国名等的复数形式,其谓语动词通常用单数形式。

The United States is smaller than China.

“The Arabian Nights” is an interesting story-book.

表数量的短语“one  and a half”后面接复数名词作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。

One and a half apples is left on the table.

一些学科名词是以-ics结尾,如:mathematics, politics, physics 以及news, works 等。都属于形式上是复数的名词,实际意义为单数名词,

它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。

The paper works was built in 1990.这家造纸厂建于1990年。

I don’t think physics is easy to study.

trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, scissors (剪刀)等词作主语时,谓语用复数,但如果这些名词前有a(the) pair of 等量词修饰时(clothes被a suit of 修饰)谓语动词用单数。

My glasses are broken.

The pair of shoes under the bed is his.


“定冠词the+形容词或分词”,表示某一类人动词用复数;若表示某一类东西时,动词用单数。

The old are taken good care of there.

The beautiful gives pleasure to all.

/远

当两个主语由either  or, neither nor, not only but also ,whether or 连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语保持一致,即就近一致。

Either the teacher or the students are our friends.

Neither he nor they are wholly right.

Neither they nor he is wholly right.

Is neither he nor they wholly right?

there be 句型中be 动词的单复数取决于其后的主语。如果其后是由and连接的两个主语,则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致,即就近一致。

There are two chairs and a desk in the room.

There is a desk and two chairs in the room.

主语后面跟有with,  together with, except, but, like, as well as, no less than, rather than, more  than, besides, along with, including, in addition to 等引起的短语,谓语动词要跟主语一致,即就远一致。

Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to  China.
A woman with a baby was on the bus.
Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground.
She, like you and Tom, is very tall.
The girls as well as the boy have learned to speak Japanese.
No one except my teachers knows anything about it.



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